Author: Barbara Walters
A CELEBRATION: 100 YEARS OF GREAT
WALTERS: Good evening. And welcome to our celebration. So how do you decide on
the 100 most important women of the 20th century? With great difficulty. But the
Ladies Home Journal did just that. They put together a distinguished panel to
select 100 women who they felt have had the biggest influence on our lives.
tonight, you will hear about and from many of the women on the list. But we've
done something a little different. We've asked some of the most intriguing women
we know to talk about the women on the list who most inspired them.
hear from Oprah Winfrey and Jane Fonda, Bette Midler, Rosie O'Donnell,
Madonna and many more. Commenting on women from Amelia Earhart to Rosa Parks to
Princess Diana. And this is the program that answers the burning question, who
in the world is Alice Paul, and why should I care?
If you have a daughter,
you'll want her to watch this. If you have a son, bolt the door and make him watch.
You give us 10 minutes, and we promise you'll stay for the full 90. Because the
journey of women this century has been anything but boring.
We start with
two women who made their way on to the list through your television set.
Lucille Ball. Her face has perhaps been seen by more people than any other woman
on the planet.
BALL (Clip from "I Love Lucy"): Ooh! BARBARA WALTERS: (voice- over)
More than 40 years since it went off the air, her show is now syndicated in more
than two dozen countries. The world still loves "I Love Lucy." (Laughter)
CAROL BURNETT: She was the first woman to knock everybody's socks off, globally,
BETTE MIDLER: And the thing that's so interesting about
her is that she was in pictures for years and years, and they never knew she was
LUCILLE BALL (Movie Clip): Tell me, little boy, did you get a whistle
or a baseball bat with that suit? BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) One of her first
drama coaches told her she had no talent. But in 1942, she landed a leading role
in "The Big Street" with Henry Fonda.
(Clip from "The Big Street")
LUCILLE BALL: Pinks, pinks.
HENRY FONDA: Having a good time, your highness?
LUCILLE BALL: Sure.
JANE FONDA: She and my dad were very, very close.
They made a movie together, and they were close.
BARBARA WALTERS: (on
camera) A-ha! Lucille Ball and Henry Fonda had a romance? JANE FONDA: I don't
know, but I think so.
(Clip from "The Big Street") LUCILLE BALL:
Everybody's watching us.
HENRY FONDA: You, not me.
JANE FONDA: He
carried her up 12 flights of stairs. He talked about that often.
WALTERS: Did he like it or not like it? JANE FONDA: I think he liked it.
WALTERS: (voice-over) The critics, however, didn't like the picture. And it looked
as if Lucille Ball wasn't going to make it in the movies.
She was a show girl. She walked around. She was glamorous. And then, she turned
out to be hilarious.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) It was the 1950s and
that newfangled medium "television" was gaining popularity. Lucy and
her husband, Desi Arnaz, sold an idea to CBS, and the first successful sitcom
DESI ARNAZ (Clip from "I Love Lucy"):Are you kidding?
(Laughter) BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Six months after "I Love
Lucy" went on the air in 1951, it was the number-one show. Every Monday night,
10 million people tuned in, in a nation with just 15 million televisions.
from "I Love Lucy") LUCILLE BALL: Ricky, this is it.
This is it? VIVIAN VANCE: This is it! BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) And by the
time Lucy Ricardo gave birth to little Ricky in 1953, a whopping 92 percent of
the people with televisions were watching. As a TV housewife, Lucy became a household
word. But in real life, she was a modern working mother, juggling a family and
LUCILLE BALL: I expected to only do the show for a year and
then have some, like, home movies to show the baby that I had just had.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Some home movies. Six years on the air, 179 episodes. LUCILLE
BALL (Clip from "I Love Lucy"):I don't want to go.
(on camera) Do you have a favorite "I Love Lucy" episode? BETTE MIDLER:
Oh, well, everybody loves -- everyone loves Vitameatavegamin.
BALL (Clip from "I Love Lucy"):Well, I'm your Vitameatavegamin girl.
ROSIE O'DONNELL, Talk Show Host: Had to be Vitameatavegamin. You know
that one, right? When she does, "Do you poop out at parties?" LUCILLE
BALL (Clip from "I Love Lucy"):Are you unpoopular?
BETTE MIDLER: And everyone loves the chocolate factory.
Or the chocolates on the.
BARBARA WALTERS: The chocolates.
BURNETT: The grape stomping in the barrel with the Italian woman, when she gets
into the big fight.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) How many times have
we all seen these episodes? Yet Lucy got the last laugh. She became one of the
richest women of the century, because she made sure her contract gave her and
Desi the rights to all those reruns.
GLORIA STEINEM: I didn't like it
then and I don't like it now.
BARBARA WALTERS: (on camera) Really? GLORIA
STEINEM: But it isn' t that I hate it. It's just that I don't get it. I don't
understand why it's funny. But I admire her as a business woman. You know, she
really seemed to control her entire professional life and was very, very smart.
BARBARA WALTERS: Did Lucille Ball pave the way for you, for Oprah?
O'DONNELL: Lucille Ball paved the way for every female performer, I think, today.
You know, you have to honor those who came before you and give a hand to those
who are coming up after you, I think. Because we're all in it together.
SINGER: (singing) Where can you stop when you want to get started?
WALTERS: (voice-over) In the '50s, it was Lucy. In the ' 90s, it's Oprah.
WINFREY: Some days I say to myself, "You're doing it. You're there, Dorothy.
Click your heels." BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Before Oprah Winfrey became
just "Oprah," actress, producer and media mogul with a half billion
dollar empire, she was a victim of racism and rape, of teenage pregnancy and poverty.
Somehow, she found a way to turn adversity into advantage. In 1988, I asked her
how she did it.
OPRAH WINFREY: I really don't know. But somewhere I have
always known that I was born for greatness in my life. Somewhere I have always
I didn't mean it from an -- an arrogant point of view, or greatness
in terms of notoriety and money. Because who could have ever imagined this life
that I'm living now, or that you could even make this much money? I couldn't have
But I did think that I would be able to use my life, and that
my life could somehow be a force for good. I always did think that.
from "Oprah") To make herself feel better, she would stand in my shoes.
And now she says doesn't have to stand in the shoes as much because she's standing
on her own.
ROSIE O'DONNELL: She dreamed it, and now she's living it.
(Clip from "Oprah") PATRICK SWAYZE: Step, together, step.
GLORIA STEINEM: She brings to a television forum real subjects about real people.
OPRAH WINFREY (Clip from "Remembering Your Spirit"): I know
it's really stepping out there for a lot of people, but I call it "remembering
your spirit." BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Like many of the women on the
list Oprah grapples with her personal life.
(on camera) Cinderella marries
Prince Charming. Oprah doesn't get married. Why don't you get married? OPRAH WINFREY:
Well, this is the truth, Barbara. I was going to do that book in 1993. We'd set
a wedding date, September 8. The autobiography was supposed to come out that same
week. And Stedman said, "It's coming out the same week we're getting married?
Because I don't want my wedding to be confused and messed in the press with the
autobiography." I said, "OK." He said, "So we should postpone
it." And I said "OK." And we have never discussed it again. It
has never come up.
BARBARA WALTERS: You said once of Oprah that she is
the reason you are allowed to have your own show. ROSIE O'DONNELL: And it's true.
BARBARA WALTERS: She made it so, therefore, another woman can make it.
ROSIE O'DONNELL: Because she had succeeded, they were, like, "Well,
let's try someone else then." When a tough New York Irish girl decided she
wanted her own show, well, "Oprah Winfrey did it," they said. "Well,
let's give her a shot." BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) As for Oprah, she says
she may just walk away from her show when her contract runs out in the year 2002.
OPRAH WINFREY: There will come a time when you will know when you' ve
said all that you can say about it. And I still, at this point with -- until 2002,
that's still 700 more shows.
BARBARA WALTERS: (on camera) Oprah and Lucy
are defined largely by their work. But at the beginning of this century women
are were defined almost entirely by their relationships with men. They were wives,
One of the exceptions was the renowned scientist Madame
Curie who won two Nobel Prizes. To make a mark in this world in the early 1900s,
women needed to be not only smart, but fearless.
(voice-over) Margaret Sanger,
an outspoken activist who, when told to be quiet, staged this not so subtle protest.
Perhaps the century' s first photo op.
JANE FONDA: Margaret Sanger would
be way at the top if I had to choose the most important women of the 20th century.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) She was the mother of contraception. In
1916, Sanger opened the nation's first birth control clinic. But after nine days
and 500 patients, the clinic was shut down and Sanger arrested.
SANGER: Many people are horrified at the idea of birth control. Why, to me, it
is simply the keynote of a new moral program.
JANE FONDA: Women were having
10, 12 children, one right after the other, and to great detriment to their health
and well-being. And she was the one that said women have a right to have a say-so
over their families and how those children are going to be born.
MIDLER: Jane Addams, a woman with a big idea.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Jane
Addams, the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize.
She was our nation's first advocate for children's rights and devoted her life
to her work at Chicago' s Hull House.
BETTE MIDLER: She took children
in -- children off the streets. And she gave them a place to live, and she gave
them an education. And that was the beginning of a big, big social movement in
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) At first, quietly, then as
a movement, women who had virtually no rights began to demand them.
(singing) Stand and be counted.
We each have a voice. Stand and be counted.
ANN RICHARDS, Former Texas Governor: Alice Paul was so smart. And she
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Alice Paul -- the fiery feminist
who urged women to take to the streets, confront the police and demand the vote.
ANN RICHARDS: Many of us are held back by the constraints of what we think
society will think and how we will be judged. That was not a problem for Alice
Paul, thank God.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) In 1913, she helped organize
a march on Washington that drew 5,000 women and 500,000 spectators.
FORD, Former First Lady: Those women, I want to take my hat off to them. They
worked very hard. They went to jail.
CAROL BURNETT: Rocks were thrown
at them. They were hooted and booed, and that -- that is pretty frightening.
ANNOUNCER: World War I had ended. Traveled soldiers found that their women folk
hadn't just sat by the fire but had launched an offensive for equal rights.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Women finally won the vote in 1920. And by then, there were
50 million of us. A quarter of us were in the workplace. We were on our way.
camera) If you look back over this century, who would be the most important influence?
JANE FONDA: This is going to surprise you. One of the first women that pops into
my mind is Coco Chanel.
BARBARA WALTERS: It surprises me.
FONDA: And here's why -- she freed us from the corset.
(voice-over) Coco Chanel, a Parisian designer who changed the way the women dressed
JANE FONDA: You know, the foot in the back, Scarlett O'Hara,
(Clip from "Gone With The Wind") VIVIEN LEIGH,
Actress: Ooh. HATTIE MCDANIEL, Actress: Just hold on and suck in.
FONDA: If you get a strong emotion, be it fear, sadness, anger, what happens?
You pass out. Women don't pass out today. You know why? We can breathe. She stripped
us of the corset. She put the A-frame dress on us, showed our legs, removed the
focus from the waist, bobbed our hair, and we were off and running.
ANNOUNCER: The Roaring '20s, personified by the flashing feet of a line of flappers.
BETTE MIDLER: I think the flapper
was really important. The girls who had been born at the turn of the century,
who cut off all their hair and who took off their corsets and rolled down their
stockings and pulled up their skirts and said, "Hey, let's have a party!"
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Now we were going where no woman had been - - up.
Aviator Amelia Earhart. For her, the sky was the limit.
Aviator: I cruised inland until I found a suitable pasture. I landed there after
frightening all the cows in the neighborhood and rolled up to the farmer's front
NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER: Journey's end. Here she is safe and sound on
a farm in Ireland, having just completed the first flight by a woman across the
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Earhart was now a national hero.
And her disappearance in 1937 only heightened her legend.
Lt. EILEEN COLLINS,
Astronaut: She was very popular, a very courageous and a very glamorous woman
who loved flying. And because of her, we had more women available to fly in the
1940s to help us get through World War II. And because of these women, women of
my generation are able to look back and say, "Hey, they did it. They even
flew military airplanes, we can do it, too." NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER: Here are
women making the tools that our men fight with and doing it just as well as a
ANN LANDERS, Advice Columnist: World War II brought many women into
the workplace who were not there before. Rosie the riveter is legendary.
(singing) Rosie the riveter.
BETTE MIDLER: There wasn't one Rosie
the Riveter. There were hundreds of thousands of women
who took over the jobs that the men left behind when they went off to fight the
war. And in doing that, they realized, "Wow, I'm making money. And I'm --
I'm having fun. Holy smoke!" BARBARA WALTERS: When we come back, we'll introduce
you to a sports legend named Babe, and we don't mean Babe Ruth.
another woman on the list. One who millions turn to every day.
Ann Landers. Today, this one-time Chicago housewife reaches 90 million readers
in 1,200 newspapers. A lot has changed since she started giving common sense advice
four decades ago.
ANN LANDERS: The boss problem. I never heard about that
42 years ago. Women didn't have bosses. They stayed home and took care of the
(Commercial Break) ANNOUNCER: "A Celebration: 100 Years Of
Great Women" with Barbara Walters continues.
BARBARA WALTERS: At
the turn of the century, the idea of a woman competing in any sport was unthinkable
and, most of all, laughable. But in 1926, Gertrude Ederle swam the English Channel
at the age of 19 to become the most celebrated athlete in the world, male or female.
Two years later, tiny Sonja Henie won the first of three consecutive Olympic
gold medals in figure skating and became a Hollywood star. But the most competitive
female athlete maybe ever was a lady named Babe.
TRACK AND FIELD ANNOUNCER:
Mildred "Babe" Didrikson making the javelin do some traveling.
WALTERS: (voice-over) In the 1932 Summer Olympics, Babe Didrikson set world records
and won two gold medals in the javelin and the hurdles. She excelled in every
sport she tried -- from track and field to baseball to golf. "It's not enough
to just swing at the ball," she said. "You've got to loosen your girdle
and really let fly." And that's what she did. Yes, that's her playing football,
tackling an opponent.
JACKIE JOYNER-KERSEE, Athlete: What Babe did, she
was able to capture the world with her talent.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
She set more records than any other athlete of her time, male or female. Didrikson
was subjected to ridicule about her mannish looks and endless speculation about
her sexuality, but she kept going, competing well into the 1950s.
JOYNER-KERSEE: Babe opened the door, and Wilma continued to push the door open
a little further.
TRACK ANNOUNCER: She is a sprinter.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Track star Wilma Rudolph. She had to overcome discrimination
and disability. As a child she was crippled by polio, but in the 1960 Olympics,
Rudolph became the first American woman to win three gold medals in track and
TRACK ANNOUNCER: She has set several new world records.
WALTERS: (voice-over) And then there is Billie Jean King.
KING: I think most people think I am like the mother of modern sports. WIMBLEDON
ANNOUNCER: Billie Jean serves again. BILLIE JEAN KING: I happened to come along
at a time when the world was ready for some change.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
And Billie Jean decided she was the woman to change it.
Billie Jean serves for match point. Beautiful shot! And the Wimbledon title is
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Billie Jean won a record 20 Wimbledon
titles. But to really win in the eyes of the world, she would have to beat a man.
HOWARD COSELL: Live from the Astrodome in Houston, Texas, the tennis "Battle
of the Sexes." Billie Jean King versus Bobby Riggs. BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
1973 -- Bobby Riggs was 55 years old. Billie Jean King was 29.
Athlete: I think that he's really a tough player, so I'd have to give him the
edge over Billie Jean.
Men and women were at odds with each other at that
point, and they were butting heads. So I think that match belonged in that era.
BILLIE JEAN KING: If you listen to Howard Cosell set the scene for this
HOWARD COSELL: A very attractive young lady, sometimes you get
the feeling that if she ever let her hair grow down to her shoulders and took
her glasses off, you would have somebody vying for a Hollywood screen test.
JEAN KING: That is just so typical, talking about my looks as a girl. Not talking
about Bobby Riggs and his looks.
HOWARD COSELL: They have started the
match. BILLIE JEAN KING: I felt alone, scared, focused. Particularly in those
days, you know, we' re the ones, boy, if there's any kind of pressure, the woman's
the first to fold like a napkin.
GLORIA STEINEM: She gave us a moment
of triumph. It's like Joe Lewis.
BARBARA WALTERS: (on camera) I remember
that game, and I wasn't the greatest tennis enthusiast. But, oh, boy, when she
won, how we all cheered! HOWARD COSELL: The game is over! Let's watch Bobby Riggs...
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Billie Jean King shattered the myth of male
superiority and in the process became Sports Illustrated's first "sportswoman
of the year." GYMNASTICS ANNOUNCER: She is one of the strongest gymnasts
that I have ever seen.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) And then came the
perfect 10. Nadia Comaneci.
GYMNASTICS ANNOUNCER: Beautiful rhythm, right
to a handstand.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Tiny 14-year-old Nadia won
her three gold medals in the 1976 Olympics. She got seven perfect 10s, a record
unmatched to this day.
(Applause) NADIA COMANECI: I heard a lot of noise
before I had a chance to see the scoreboard. And when I turn my head, I saw my
number, 073, and under that there was 1.00. And I thought, "No, it can't
be a one! I think I did better than one." I didn't know what that meant.
GYMNASTICS ANNOUNCER: A perfect 10! BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) What
it meant was the scoreboard didn't have room for all those digits. Nobody had
ever scored a 10 before.
NADIA COMANECI: And after that, they put four
digits, so now they can make a 10. I like to be remembered very simple, like the
first perfect 10.
BARBARA WALTERS: When we return, more perfect 10s. This
time from the world of music -- Madonna, and the women who gave their voice to
But first, one of the most extraordinary women on anybody's
(voice-over) Helen Keller, an outspoken activist for the rights of the
disabled -- despite a bout of scarlet fever that left her deaf and blind, she
learned to speak.
HELEN KELLER: I am not dumb now.
(voice-over) With the help of Annie Sullivan, Helen Keller learned five languages
using Braille. She wrote more than a dozen books. "Life," said Helen
Keller, "is either a daring adventure, or nothing." For her, life was
a daring adventure.
(Commercial Break) ANNOUNCER: "A Celebration:
100 Years Of Great Women" with Barbara Walters continues.
WALTERS: Of the 100 women on the Ladies Home Journal list, there are only two
painters -- Georgia O'Keeffe and Frieda Kahlo. Only two photographers, Margaret
Bourke-White and Dorothea Lang. Only two dancers, Martha Graham and Isadora Duncan.
And there is only one opera star, Maria Callas.
But there are four popular
singers on the list. Perhaps because their music was and still is universal. Each
singer influenced the next, all the way up to Madonna. Yes, the "material
girl" is on the list.
MADONNA: (singing) Some boys kiss me.
boys hug me.
I think they're OK.
I'm in charge of my fantasies. I put
myself in these situations with men, and everybody knows, in terms of my image
in the public, people don't think of me as a person who's not in charge of my
career or my life. OK? And isn't that what feminism is all about, you know, equality
for men and women?
(singing) Don't go for second best, baby.
lover to the test.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Madonna...
(singing) Make him express how he feels.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
Outrageous? You bet.
MADONNA: (singing) Then you know your love is real.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) She is sexy and shocking, a brilliant marketer
who re-invents herself constantly.
MADONNA: I was pigeonholed or labeled
as this woman, this raving nymphomaniac who's obsessed with sex and shocking people.
(singing) I want to kiss you in Paris.
GLORIA STEINEM: She was
clearly nobody's victim. She was using sex and being in control of sex. And that's
MADONNA: (singing) Wanting, needing.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
Here she is as a modern-day Marilyn with a difference.
She's taken all the traditional trappings that victimized Marilyn Monroe, and
said, "I'm going to control them." So the fans of Marilyn Monroe were
largely men and boys. But the fans of Madonna are young girls.
(singing) Let your body move to the music.
Hey, hey, hey.
Come on, vogue.
Let your body go with the flow.
CELINE DION, Singer: Now,
that she has a child, she's so different. She's so wonderful. She's been wonderful
all the time. But she' s changed many things through her music.
WALTERS: (on camera) Do you think that Madonna is a role model, or should be a
role model? ROSIE O'DONNELL: Yeah, I think she definitely is a role model. When
you talk to women, especially much younger than me, the next generation, like,
you know, 25 and below, they have a reverence for her that's kind of unparalleled.
BARBARA WALTERS: Why?
ROSIE O'DONNELL: Because she was the defining
pop star of their childhood. When they grew up, she was the one they wanted to
be like. And she also was a very successful, powerful woman. Probably the most
successful, powerful woman of rock 'n' roll ever.
MADONNA: (singing) And
I feel and I feel...
And it just gets harder and I feel.
WALTERS: (voice-over) If Madonna is the most successful woman in rock 'n' roll,
Fitzgerald was the most widely acclaimed jazz singer of the century.
(Scat singing) Tony Bennett called her, "The lady who taught us how to
sing." ELLA FITZGERALD: (singing) Somewhere there's heaven.
Somewhere there's music.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Her
work spanned nearly 60 years, in every style from scat to swing, country to bebop.
BETTE MIDLER: Her ear was so superb, and her taste was so exquisite.
I mean, if she played -- if she been an instrumentalist, if she had been a piano
player or a trumpet player, well, she would have just been the greatest that ever
ELLA FITZGERALD: (singing) .the moon.
BILLIE HOLIDAY: (singing)
Them that's got shall have.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) And then, there
was Billie Holiday.
BILLIE HOLIDAY: (singing) Them that's not shall lose.
So the Bible says.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) They called her "lady
day." But she sang of the night, of heartache and lost love. Billie once
said, "The whole basis of my singing is feeling. Unless I feel something,
I can't sing." BILLIE HOLIDAY: (singing) God bless the child.
got his own.
That's got his own.
JESSYE NORMAN, Opera Singer: The
sound that she was making was much less important than what she was saying. I
mean, she wasn't sort of busy trying to sort of make a pretty noise. She wanted
you to know what was in her heart.
BILLIE HOLIDAY: (singing) Treat me
And I'll stay home everyday.
BETTE MIDLER: When
I hear the later albums of Billie's, when she was in so much pain and so much
trouble and her voice was almost shot, to me, those are the most moving records
that she made because you can hear everything that she lived through in those
BILLIE HOLIDAY: (singing) Love is like a faucet.
It turns off
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Billie
Holiday was a heroin addict. She died at the age of 44.
HOLIDAY: (singing) Sometimes when you think it's on, baby.
It has turned off
JANIS JOPLIN: (singing) One more time...
(voice-over) Janis Joplin, she lived the blues. The first female superstar in
the all-male world of rock 'n' roll. But her world included hard liquor and heroin.
Like Billie Holiday, the soul in her music came from the pain in her life.
Joplin singing) JESSYE NORMAN: She allowed us to see her soul. She just stood
there and showed it to everybody.
JANIS JOPLIN: (singing) When you hold
me in your arms, (inaudible). Come on, come on, come on, come on and take it.
Take another little piece of my heart now, baby.
CELINE DION: Take another
little piece of my heart now, baby. When you hear her music, she's so, she's crying
all the time. It's so painful. I love her very much because she's very passionate.
JANIS JOPLIN: (singing) You know you got it.
If it makes you feel
MIDLER: I saw her a couple of times at the Fillmore East, and she killed me.
She was brilliant. She was completely and utterly brilliant.
(singing) And oh, oh, well, honey, Just take me.
WALTERS: (voice-over) I'd rather not sing, than sing quiet, " said Joplin.
But her voice was silenced in 1970 when heroin claimed the life of the queen of
rock 'n' roll. Janis
Joplin was just 27.
JANIS JOPLIN: (singing) Tell me what.
Oh, tell me what.
Oh, baby, tell me what.
What love, honey, what love
BARBARA WALTERS: Those were women of passion. And there are all
kinds of passion. When we come back, some of the most passionate, provocative
and irritating women of our time. But first, a woman on the list who made our
world a safer place.
(voice-over) Rachel Carson. This is what propelled
Rachel Carson into action -- pesticides. They were sprayed indiscriminately on
fields, in cities. The environmental movement was born in this country in 1962
when Carson published an explosive book -- "Silent Spring." RACHEL CARSON:
We've heard the benefits of pesticides, but very little about the hazards.
MIDLER: She said, "We're poisoning ourselves. This has got to stop."
the whistle and rang the bell.
ANNOUNCER: "A Celebration: 100 Years
Of Great Women" with Barbara Walters continues after this from our ABC stations.
(Station Break) ANNOUNCER: "A Celebration: 100 Years Of Great Women"
with Barbara Walters continues.
BARBARA WALTERS: Feminist. This may be
one of the most misunderstood words of this century. At its core, feminism was
supposed to be about equality. And equality is what the women you will be meeting
next were fighting for. Some of them may have been really annoying. But without
them, we would be living today in a very different world.
(TV Clips) ACTOR:
What's cooking? ACTRESS: Bleu cheese salad dressing.
FEMALE SINGER: (singing)
Is that all there is?
If that's all there, is my friends...
WALTERS: (voice-over) It was 1960, and "father knew best." TV told us
that true fulfillment was a clean house.
ACTRESS (TV commercial): Shouldn't
you try presoaking those things?
BARBARA WALTERS: This was happiness?
By now, some women were discovering that the comfortable suburban fantasy wasn't
all it was cracked up to be.
ACTRESS (TV commercial): I can't seem to
make good coffee.
BETTY FRIEDAN: It was as if there were millions of women,
and each one thought she was a freak. She was alone if she wasn't having an orgasm
waxing the kitchen floor.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) One of those women
was Betty Friedan, a housewife and mother of three. In 1963, she sat down to write
a book. It became a manifesto, "The Feminine Mystique."
FRIEDAN: She doesn't need to devote all of her energy and abilities just to getting
that man. And she doesn't need to devote all of her energy and abilities just
to having babies. And it's a terrible thing we' re doing to American women in
the name of femininity.
GLORIA STEINEM: She told the truth, and many other
women who had experienced that truth understood that they were not crazy, that
the system was crazy.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Gloria Steinem was
a young magazine writer back in 1963 when she went undercover as a "bunny."
NARRATOR: One might call the Playboy clubs the triumph of the obvious.
WALTERS: (on camera) I want to go back to 1963, when you caused a sensation. What
did you learn from that experience? GLORIA STEINEM: I discovered that I had more
in common with the bunnies than I did with my smart-ass editors who assigned me
to do this. That these were women who were trying to make a living. It was a terrible
job. They were underpaid.
We are a movement about power, not a public relations
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) The journalist became an activist.
FEMINISTS: We are sisters, be ourselves, power to all women.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Fighting for equal rights for equal pay, leading the pro-choice
marches for abortion.
JANE FONDA: Every movement needs a voice, needs
someone who can capture in words the essence of what the movement is. That's what
FEMINISTS: Equal pay for equal work.
(voice-over) By 1970, for the first time in history, nearly half of all women
were working. Abortion was legalized in 1973. It was an era of liberation and
bra burning. Women took the pill and talked about "free love." BETTE
MIDLER: To say we are now free love, who invented that? That was guys invented
that, because the women have all the burden of free love.
(voice-over) There were many who rejected the feminist label, perhaps because
it seemed so strident. And they feared being a feminist might mean they could
no longer be feminine.
CAROL BURNETT: A lot of people felt that feminists
were threatening, that they had to be butch or smoke cigars of stuff like that,
which is insane.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Phyllis Schlafly, an outspoken,
PHYLLIS SCHLAFLY: A whole cabinet for women, that's
one of their proposals.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) While Steinem pushed
for legislation, Schlafly pushed back against the Equal Rights Amendment.
SCHLAFLY: I showed that the Equal Rights Amendment would take away rights from
women. And we were successful in that. It was carried on with great fervor in
many of the state capitals. And we won against overwhelming odds.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Katharine Graham -- if you had to name one woman this century
who transformed herself from a shy wife and mother, who had really never worked,
into one of the most powerful women of her time, this is the woman you would pick.
KATHARINE GRAHAM, Media Executive: I grew up in the world
where women were second-class citizens and, I hate to say, accepted it.
WALTERS: (voice-over) She was 46 when her husband, Phil Graham, committed suicide.
No one expected her to step into his shoes. But that's just what she did, running
her family's newspaper, the Washington Post.
(on camera) In many ways,
your story is a 20th century woman's story. What was for you the most difficult
challenge of this transition? KATHARINE GRAHAM: There were so many difficult ones,
I don't know how I could begin, because it was overwhelming. They were all male
when I started. And I never got used to it, and they never got used to it. What
I finally learned was that they were as scared of having me in the room as I was
of being in the room.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) She took the Post
from a local newspaper to a national media powerhouse and, along the way, helped
bring down a president -- Richard Nixon. But when Graham came face-to-face with
feminism, she blinked.
KATHARINE GRAHAM: When Gloria came along and said,
"I want to talk to you about women's roles in the world." I said, "That's
not for me." BARBARA WALTERS: (on camera) How did you change her view of
women? GLORIA STEINEM: Well, I guess, maybe I reminded her that she was one. There's
a choice basically, and it's called, you're either a feminist or a masochist.
And that's pretty much it.
BARBARA WALTERS: But for women of color, equal
rights was a dream beyond their reach. And it took them to a new frontier, the
dangerous battlefield known as civil rights.
MARIAN ANDERSON: (singing)
Let us break bread together on our knees.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
It may be that the civil rights movement started with a song. Opera singer Marian
Anderson was told that she wasn't allowed to sing in Constitution Hall in 1939.
The Daughters of the American Revolution told her she wasn't welcome because she
Furious, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt booked Anderson into a much
bigger theater -- the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. With a crowd of more than
75,000, her concert became the nation's first civil rights rally.
ANDERSON: (singing) Sweet land of liberty.
JESSYE NORMAN: It was a political
statement. It was a civil rights statement. And of course, it was a tremendous
musical experience for the tens of thousands that were lucky enough to be there
that Easter Sunday.
OPRAH WINFREY: What Marian Anderson showed is that,
"If you won't let me sing inside, I will just move myself out and sing to
the stars. I will sing to the stars." And what it took to do that. BARBARA
WALTERS: (voice-over) The torch was lit and passed to Rosa Parks. She's in her
80s now -- a gentle woman who hardly looks like someone who could start a movement,
yet alone a revolution. But that is exactly what Parks did. In Montgomery, Alabama,
in 1955, the 42-year-old seamstress refused to give up her seat on a public bus
to a white passenger.
OPRAH WINFREY: What Rosa Parks did is out in the
stratosphere, it' s in the stratosphere what that was. And my life that I'm living
would not be possible had she not had the courage to say, "I'm not moving
today." ROSA PARKS: Well, we hope to achieve equal rights, as any human being
deserves. That's what we're working for.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
Rosa Parks was arrested, and for the first time in this nation, black citizens
rose up in defiance. In Montgomery, they refused to ride the public buses, a crippling
boycott that lasted a full year. It took the Supreme Court to finally rule that
segregated public buses were illegal. And it had taken just one person, a woman,
to set the ball in motion.
MARIAN WRIGHT EDELMAN, Children's Rights Advocate:
You don't have to have a huge amount of education. You don't have to have a huge
amount of sophistication. You just have to believe in something deeply, in freedom.
And she did. And look at what she sparked.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
What she sparked in Marian Wright Edelman was a passion. "If you don't like
the way the world is," she once said, "you change it." CHILDREN:
(singing) I'm not afraid.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) And in 1963, there
was plenty to change.
(Screaming) (voice-over) The segregated South was a
battleground when Edelman first arrived in Mississippi. The young law student
had gone to register black voters, a peaceful goal in a time of violence.
WRIGHT EDELMAN: I was scared all the time. But it was a sense that when you believe
in something so deeply, you're ready to die for that.
(voice-over) She became the first African- American woman admitted to the Mississippi
bar. In 1973, she founded the Children' s Defense Fund. MARIAN WRIGHT EDELMAN:
What will it take for us to stand up and stop the killing of children in America?
MAYA ANGELOU: I am that tree planted by the river which will not be moved.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Maya Angelou -- the celebrated poet and novelist. Her proudest
moment, she said, was reading her poem at President Clinton's first inaugural
MAYA ANGELOU: You have a piercing need for this bright morning
dawning for you.
I was standing in front of my new president, my people were
looking to me, frightened, you know, trepidation, "Please be good."
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Angelou first found refuge in books and poetry at
the age of 7. Raped by her mother's boyfriend, she didn't speak for six years.
But she found her voice and, in 1970, told her story in the best-selling novel
-- "I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings." Another young girl growing up
in Mississippi read it and wept.
OPRAH WINFREY: It was the first piece
of literature about a black female that validated my life, that made me think
the life of a Negro child could be important and worth writing about. I connected
to her and that story and gathered strength from that. She came out of it, so
BARBARA WALTERS: Next, can women have it all? Jane Fonda, Bette
Midler, Oprah and Katharine Hepburn try to answer that question. But first,
a woman on the list who brought a taboo subject out in the open.
Anita Hill -- she brought the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace into
our living rooms.
COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN: Professor, do you swear to tell
the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? ANITA HILL: I do.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) In 1991, she went public with accusations
against Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas.
ANITA THOMAS: It was really
about the ability to stand up and tell the truth about our experiences and face
the heat if you will. Not everyone gets to go through the storm and to come out
with their lives intact. And I was able to do that.
ANNOUNCER: "A Celebration: 100 Years Of Great Women" with Barbara Walters
BARBARA WALTERS: For many of the women on the list, having
it all seemed impossible. Margaret Meade devoted her life to anthropology, but
we rarely hear about her three failed marriages and her guilt over spending so
little time raising her only daughter. Mother Teresa was married to the church.
The world's poor were her family.
For these women, their life was their
work. And there was little left over for themselves. Yet today, when having the
marriage, the career and children is possible, we still wonder if we can have
(on camera) Do you think you can have it all? OPRAH WINFREY: I think
you can have it all. You can't have it all at once.
I don't think you can have it all without some help. I really don't.
GRAHAM: If you want to be a chief executive officer, I don' t think you can probably
do justice to your home life or your children.
BARBARA WALTERS: I have
said that you can't have it all unless you have a man who also will stay home
certain days and help with the children and help with the housework, and so on.
Then maybe you can have it all.
GLORIA STEINEM: But the problem is that
when I go around and speak on campuses, I still don't get young men standing up
and saying, " How can I combine career and family?" BARBARA WALTERS:
No, it's the woman who says it.
GLORIA STEINEM: Right.
GLORIA STEINEM: So as long as half the human race is worrying
about this problem, it's not going to get solved.
BARBARA WALTERS: I would
not be asking that question "Can you have it all?" to a man.
KATHARINE HEPBURN: I have not lived as a woman, I have
lived as a man.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Katharine Hepburn, strong
and independent. She did it her way, or not at all. Here's what she had to say
when I interviewed her in 1981.
(interviewing) You know, we are in a period
in which women are trying so hard to have it all -- the marriage, the children,
the career. I think it's very tough. I know how.
KATHARINE HEPBURN: It's
impossible. It's impossible. If I were a man, I would not marry a woman with a
career, and I'd torture myself as a mother. Supposing little Johnny or little
Katie had the mumps, and I had an opening night, I'd want to strangle the children.
You see, I really would want to strangle the children.
If you were a man, you would not marry a woman with a career? KATHARINE HEPBURN:
Nope. I wouldn't be that big a fool. I'd want her to be interested in me, not
a career. And a career is fascinating.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) From
the moment Hepburn burst onto the screen, she was that sexy, elegant and elusive
woman we all wanted to be. (Movie clip) KATHARINE HEPBURN: Isn't the sports department
downstairs? ACTOR: Well, yes. Yes, I guess it is. KATHARINE HEPBURN: Then aren't
you going in the wrong direction? GLORIA STEINEM: Katharine Hepburn to me was
somebody who was smart and complicated and sexual. As opposed to being dumb and
sexy, she was smart and sexy.
LAUREN BACALL, Actress: She is a woman who
has traveled solo most of her life and very independent. And she was just always
Katie, you know? There was just Katie.
SPENCER TRACY (Clip from "Adam's
Rib"): Sit down, Pinky.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Hepburn was
constantly challenging the notion that women simply sprang from Adam's rib. That
was the name of one of the movies that teamed her with the love of her life, Spencer
SPENCER TRACY (Clip from "Adam's Rib"): Pinky.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Hepburn and Tracy had a 26- year relationship, but never
married. It's hard to imagine Hepburn playing the role of the dutiful wife.
HEPBURN: I mean, I put on pants 50 years ago and declared a sort of middle road.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) But one woman on the list does seem to have
it all, Jane Fonda. She has the career, the children and marriage, though she's
had more than one.
(interviewing) Jane Fonda does represent so many of the
changes in this society.
JANE FONDA: Mm-hmm.
It's almost full circle, though, from the Barbarella.
JANE FONDA (Movie
clip): Armed, like a naked savage.
BARBARA WALTERS: The sex kitten, to
JANE FONDA: Choice now.
BARBARA WALTERS: And fitness,
right? JANE FONDA (From exercise video): Eight more. Lift, lift.
WALTERS: And now, the wife.
JANE FONDA: You know what I've discovered
is that, yes, there's been lots of changes. And they've become very noticeable
depending on who I'm married to. But there's a leitmotif through it all. And it's
a leitmotif of strength. I've gone from strength to strength.
And why do I still want to trick? Why do I still walk by a phone? BARBARA WALTERS:
(voice-over) Fonda won her first Oscar in 1972, playing a prostitute who is being
stalked. JANE FONDA: When the killer confronts me, and I hear the tape recording
he's made of the voice of my friend who he killed...
(Screaming) I had
prepared in the scene to play scared. And instead, I wept.
You're weeping now, Jane.
JANE FONDA: Well, it moves me so much. I --
the incredible brutality, physical brutality against women and girls.
WALTERS: (voice-over) In the '90s, Fonda stopped acting and now spends much of
her time on her favorite cause, preventing teenage pregnancy.
Over the past years, we've learned that adolescent pregnancy is not so much a
cause but rather a symptom.
I've divided my life into three acts. I'm
in my third act. Very important, you know enough about books and movies and plays.
The third act has to pull it all together.
BARBARA WALTERS: And in our
third act, we'll meet some very powerful women who tried to put it all together.
But first, the youngest woman on our list.
(voice-over) Anne Frank -- she
wrote just one book, "The Diary Of A Young Girl." Anne Frank died in
a Nazi concentration camp in 1945 at the age of 15.
NATALIE PORTMAN: I
see the world being slowly transformed into a wilderness. I hear the approaching
thunder that, one day, will destroy us, too. In the meantime, I must hold on to
my ideals. Perhaps the day will come when I will be able to realize them.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Seventeen-year-old Natalie Portman portrayed Anne Frank
last year in the Broadway revival.
NATALIE PORTMAN: She taught us that
even when you are up against the worst kind of evil in the world, you can still
retain your spirit.
(Commercial Break) MADELEINE ALBRIGHT, Secretary of
State: I, Madeleine Corbell Albright...
Vice Pres. AL GORE: Do solemnly swear.
MADELEINE ALBRIGHT: Do solemnly swear.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
Madeleine Albright -- America's first female Secretary of State. Since 1997, Albright
has been front and center, from Baghdad to Kosovo.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) A blunt, often controversial
voice on foreign policy.
(on camera) Do you think Thomas Jefferson ever thought
there'd be a woman? MADELEINE ALBRIGHT: I doubt that he did. But I have to tell
you what really puts it into perspective for me is when I tell people I have Thomas
BARBARA WALTERS: (on camera) Thomas Jefferson, our first
Secretary of State, became our third president. When will we finally have our
first female president? Interestingly, the United States, which led the way in
women's rights, lags behind when it comes to real political power for women. For
that we must look to other continents.
To Indira Gandhi, from 1966 to
1984, prime minister of the world's largest democracy, India. To Golda Meir, from
1969 to 1974, prime minister of a young and struggling country named Israel. And
Margaret Thatcher, Great Britain's first female prime minister. She held the post
longer than anyone in modern history, 11 years.
Closer to home, the list
includes four American first ladies. And the earliest on the list influenced the
(voice-over) Hillary Clinton has chosen a role model whom she
jokingly says she looks to for advice, although her much-admired mentor has been
dead for almost 40 years.
HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON, First Lady: When I last
spoke with Mrs. Roosevelt, she wanted me to tell all of you how pleased she is
by this great, great new statue.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Eleanor Roosevelt
-- perhaps the most influential American woman of this century.
ROOSEVELT: We want a prosperity which will make life more worth living.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Roosevelt spoke out at a time when few women dared to speak
at all. She even held press conferences, 300 of them.
And Mrs. Roosevelt transformed the duty of a first lady from that of a mere social
hostess to one of aggressive participation in national life and affairs.
GRAHAM: She was a perfectly extraordinary, strong, able woman who had launched
on a career of her own at a time when it wasn' t done.
King George and his queen welcome Mrs. Roosevelt to Britain, the first time a
president's wife had traveled abroad.
ANN LANDERS: I knew Eleanor Roosevelt.
In fact, I have a wonderful picture of the two of us. I bet the woman was over
six feet tall. And she was a broad-shouldered type, but she had a charm about
her that was just incredible.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) But Roosevelt
wasn't always revered. She was often criticized for going where first ladies had
BETTY FORD: One of the images I have of her was seeing a picture
of her going down into the coal mines with the coal miners and the hat. I think
she definitely redefined the role of first lady for me.
(voice-over) Betty Ford -- as a first lady, she broke the barrier on silence about
drugs, alcohol and cancer.
NEWS ANCHOR: Bethesda Naval Medical Center
today released pathology reports on First Lady Betty Ford in the aftermath of
her operation for breast cancer this weekend.
BETTY FORD: Hundreds of
thousands of women in the world have breast cancer. I felt I had to share my experience
ROSIE O'DONNELL: I think it paved the way for so many women
now who are not ashamed or stigmatized by that word or by that diagnosis, breast
cancer. And also, by living, she proved that you can survive it.
WALTERS: (voice-over) And Betty Ford saved lives by revealing another dark secret,
the first lady was seriously addicted to drugs and alcohol. It was sadly apparent
when I interviewed her at the White House in 1976.
BETTY FORD: They have
a room at -- the lower level...
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Her family
decided to take action.
GERALD FORD, Former President: We wanted her to
understand we loved her. And if she didn't respond to the intervention, didn't
take treatment, the likelihood was that she would die.
BETTY FORD: It
was what I needed. I needed somebody who cared to tell me I was sick.
WALTERS: (voice-over) Betty Ford saved herself and decided she could save others.
She founded the Betty Ford Clinic in 1982.
ANN RICHARDS: Betty Ford was
a truly courageous woman. To say, "I' m a human being. I have a serious problem,
and I'm going to deal with that problem." BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) And
what of today' s first lady? Hillary Rodham Clinton.
HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON:
I appreciate what you all are doing. I saw that, great.
(voice-over) From the start, she has been more of a politician than a political
wife. Pres. BILL CLINTON: My slogan might well be, "Buy one, get one free."
HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON: Good to see you, Hillary Clinton.
(voice-over) But early on, as we remember, she got in trouble for speaking her
mind. HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON: I suppose I could have stayed home and baked cookies
and had teas.
KATHARINE GRAHAM: She should say what she thinks, and if
it means anything, she should be taken seriously. But I don't think that she should
act as co-president.
HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON: And to deal with the problems
that are affecting this country.
ANN LANDERS: She's a real person, and
it comes across. She could be president.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
Perhaps, but there are those that felt that even as first lady, she expressed
herself too often. I talked with Mrs. Clinton about this in 1996.
Do you think the American people are ready yet to have a first lady who has strong
opinions and an agenda?
HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON: I think so. I think some
are and some aren' t. And I believe that this has been a learning experience for
me, coming here and not really understanding all the expectations that people
sort of put on this role.
REPORTER: Mrs. Clinton, channel 7...
WALTERS: (voice-over) No first lady has been more investigated or scrutinized.
But perhaps because of her handling of her husband' s troubles, Hillary Clinton
has found her own approval ratings soaring.
(on camera) Now, there might
have been a time, Gloria, when you would have criticized Hillary Clinton for standing
by her man no matter what he did. How do you rationalize that? GLORIA STEINEM:
I don' t. I mean, I think Hillary Clinton is not a victim. She is very smart.
She is a full partner. If you see them together, you realize -- it seems to me
that they really like each other. It's her choice. I respect her choice.
WALTERS: Simple as that? GLORIA STEINEM: Simple as that. I hope she's having a
sex life of her own.
(Laughter) BARBARA WALTERS: When we come back, the
legends -- Jacqueline Kennedy, Princess Diana, and Marilyn Monroe.
"A Celebration: 100 Years Of Great Women" With Barbara Walters continues
after this from our ABC stations.
(Station Break) ANNOUNCER: "A Celebration:
100 Years Of Great Women" With Barbara Walters continues.
WALTERS: Everybody has a dream. Mine was to one day interview the legendary Greta
Garbo. In fact, I once said I would quit if only Greta Garbo would agree to an
interview with me. And then I was afraid she would call me up and say, promise?
I also never interviewed the three legendary women we're going to meet
next. They tried to carve out some normalcy in their lives, but their fame made
it almost impossible.
(voice-over) Jacqueline Kennedy was American royalty
from the day we first met her. As first lady, she enthralled us. She took us on
a tour of the White House that she helped restore.
It just seemed to me such a shame when we came here to find hardly anything of
the past in the house.
BETTY FORD: Jacqueline Kennedy brought a new aura
to the White House. There's no question about it.
KATHARINE GRAHAM: She
lit up the room. In a funny way I couldn't take my eyes off her. She had such
charm, and the whispery voice and huge eyes.
JACQUELINE KENNEDY: This
is the end of the room where Pablo Casals played for us.
(voice-over) But her time in the White House was tragically about to come to an
REPORTER: It appears as though something has happened in the motorcade
route. Something, I repeat, something has happened in the motorcade route.
WALTERS: (voice-over) She was just 34, a widow who now planned every detail of
her husband's funeral.
JACQUELINE KENNEDY: I want to take this opportunity
to express my appreciation for the hundreds and thousands of messages, nearly
800, 000 in all, which my children and I have received over the past few weeks.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) What mattered most to Jacqueline Kennedy
were her children. "If you bungle raising your kids," she once said,
"I don't think whatever else you do well matters very much." In 1994,
she died at home with her family by her side.
If Jacqueline Kennedy was American
("Wedding Symphony" playing) ...the royal legend
of this century was Princess Diana. The bride had just turned 20.
DIANA: I, Diana Frances, take thee, Philip Charles Arthur George...
a fairy story that everybody wanted to work. And so, it was isolating. But it
was also a situation where you couldn't indulge in feeling sorry for yourself.
You had to either sink or swim.
BRITISH COMMENTATOR: Well, there's no doubt
she has lost weight since the birth...
JANE FONDA: I always wished that
I -- that I had known her. We would have had a lot to talk about.
WALTERS: (on camera) The bulimia? JANE FONDA: Yeah. BARBARA WALTERS: The eating
disorders? JANE FONDA: The being married and not feeling loved, all those kinds
BARBARA WALTERS: Yeah. The exercise and the overdoing all of that?
JANE FONDA: Yeah, yeah.
BARBARA WALTERS: Fascinating.
JANE FONDA: She used to use my tapes. And I just couldn't get up the courage
to call her.
BARBARA WALTERS: You talked very frankly with Princess Diana.
What were some of the things that you said to her? KATHARINE GRAHAM: I said once
that shouldn't she go back and get some more education. And she looked at me with
some degree of scorn and said, "I've been educated." BARBARA WALTERS:
Princess Diana, what's the most important lesson?
GLORIA STEINEM: Never
marry a prince.
BARBARA WALTERS: We grew up with, "Someday my prince
will come." Cinderella marries the prince.
GLORIA STEINEM: Yeah,
but there was a reason why those stories never continued after marriage. They
didn't want you to know what happened.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) After
her divorce, she began to find her way, spending time with her sons, crusading
against AIDS and land mines. But wherever Diana went, the paparazzi followed.
PRINCESS DIANA: Could I ask you to respect my children's space?
WALTERS: (voice-over) Her every move was documented. Especially, when it seemed
she might be falling in love again.
(Bell tolling) ELTON JOHN: (singing)
Good-bye English rose From the country lost without your soul.
the wings of your compassion.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Elton John's
song was originally written for another woman, Marilyn Monroe, whose legend has
also grown since her death.
ELTON JOHN: (singing) You've lived your life
Like a candle in the wind.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) She went from
being Norma Jean Baker, who grew up in orphanages, to Marilyn
Monroe, sex goddess. "The most beautiful girl America could
dream up," said one writer. From the beginning, we couldn't take our eyes
off her. Riveting, even in a early TV commercial.
MARILYN MONROE (TV Commercial):
Cynthia will just love that Royal Tritan.
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over)
She became a starlet.
(Movie clips) MARILYN MONROE: I hate a careless
man. ACTOR: Your picture has been almost on the cover of all popular magazines,
hasn' t it? MARILYN MONROE: No, not the Ladies Home Journal. JANE FONDA: She walked
in a room, and all the energy went...
(Clip from "How To Marry A
Millionaire") MARILYN MONROE: (singing) I've heard of affairs that are strictly
But diamonds are a girls best friend.
LAUREN BACALL: All
right, put them on. No men here yet.
At the time that we made "How
To Marry A Millionaire," she was just going out with Joe DiMaggio. And she
had this fantasy about, she wanted to have children, and she -- family life. And
of course, it wasn't in the cards for her to have a family life.
WALTERS: (voice-over) She never got to live out that fantasy, and after 29 movies
and a decade as America's favorite pin-up girl, Monroe herself said there was
nothing left. "I have given myself away, the whole of me, every part."
BETTE MIDLER: She really wanted not just to be a beautiful face. She wanted
to be known as a great actress. She wanted to be known as intelligent.
WALTERS: (voice-over) In 1962, Marilyn Monroe sat for a Life magazine photo session
and rare a radio interview.
MARILYN MONROE: We are all born sexual creatures,
thank God. It's a pity so many people despise and crush this natural gift.
ANCHOR: In a last tribute...
BARBARA WALTERS: (voice-over) Just two weeks
later, she was dead, reportedly from an overdose of sleeping pills.
You met Marilyn Monroe. What was she like?
GLORIA STEINEM: She was so
vulnerable, so vulnerable. And I think I was haunted by her because she died before
the women's movement came along. And I kept thinking she had so many of the experiences
that would have been better understood now -- being sexually abused as a little
girl, being turned into an object not a person, being used as a dumb blond. You
know, could the women's movement have saved her life? BARBARA WALTERS: When we
come back, Elizabeth Taylor on the importance of men in the next 100 years. Will
women need men?
ELIZABETH TAYLOR: Oh, yes. Oh, God, yes!
Break) BARBARA WALTERS: So here we are, at the end of the century. With all the
advances, women in general still make less money than men, do more housework,
spend more time with the kids. But what about the next millennium?
How do you think women are going to be different 50 years from now?
O'DONNELL: Fifty years from now? I think they'll be more independent than they
are. And I think probably more focused on family. You know, I think we sort of
swung back in the other way. It was, like, those '50s values of the woman has
to stay home, "No way, let's rebel against that." And, you know, in
the -- in the '80s, it's, like, super woman, do everything, and go. And I think
you -- we're going to settle somewhere in the middle.
What is left for the women of the 21st century? GLORIA STEINEM: We know that we
can do what men can do, but we still don't know that men can do what women can
do. That's absolutely crucial. We can't go on doing two jobs.
We're not quite equal, but we're getting there.
ANN RICHARDS: During my
grandmother's lifetime, the vote was denied to idiots, imbeciles, the insane and
women. And one generation later, I was the governor of this state. We have come
a very long way.
BETTE MIDLER: I don't think there are going to
be great movements of women moving one way or another.
So you think the 21st century, for women, is going to be individual. You want
to stay home, stay home. You want to have a career, have a career.
MIDLER: Yes, yes. No more sheep? BARBARA WALTERS: Look ahead to the next millennium,
will women need men? ELIZABETH TAYLOR: Oh, yes. BARBARA WALTERS: Yes? ELIZABETH
TAYLOR: Oh, God, yes. BARBARA WALTERS: I mean, they can have babies without men.
Why do they need men? ELIZABETH TAYLOR: No, no, no, no, no. Oh, to cuddle up to.
Oh, God, to smooch with. Definitely. To make love with. Oh, God, yeah. Women need
BARBARA WALTERS: I'd be the last to argue with that. When we come
back, I have a little disclosure to make.
(Commercial Break) BARBARA WALTERS:
There are, of course, dozens left on the list of 100 we didn't get to. We probably
needed at least another 90 minutes. So here's my wish for the millennium. One
hundred years from now, women will have found such a secure place in this world
that it will not only be impossible to confine the list to 100, but also unnecessary
to categorize us by gender.
In the interest of full disclosure, I should tell
you that I am also on the Ladies Home Journal list. I am slightly embarrassed,
but very proud.
For more about the 100 most important women of the century,
you can find the Ladies Home Journal book at your local bookstore or visit us
I'm Barbara Walters. Thank you for watching. For all
of us at ABC News, good night.
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WALTERS, A CELEBRATION: 100 YEARS OF GREAT WOMEN. , ABC Special Report, 04-30-1999.